Basics of agricultural engineering and cropping
Land reform in the Kyrgyz Republic has entailed drastic changes in the agricultural sector. Peasants received land allotments. However, people who received land plots, they are representatives of different professions: workers, doctors, teachers and others. Currently, rural workers and farmers are not sufficiently informed on the advanced production and scientific achievements in agriculture. Timely and fully used agronomic measures for cultivated crops are one of the important factors for obtaining high yields.
If we take the situation in the agriculture of the republic, the area of irrigated lands are 1.018 million hectares, and the yield (in comparison with 1980-90) was reduced almost to 2-2.5 times.
So, if before 1991 there were collective and state farms (kolkhozes and sovkhozes) in the republic and it was easy to manage the production of agricultural crops, then after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the land reform enabled the peasants to get their shares of land and to operate in completely new conditions for them. Thus, more than 90% of agricultural enterprises of the Soviet period took the form of private property. After the transition period, arable lands changed the cropping pattern, while maintaining a relative difference in the level of fertility, today no longer have the same indicators.
In particular, losses of humus reached 57% due to land degradation processes, there was a change in the humus reserves in the soil. Currently, one of the main problems of farmers in the republic is lack of knowledge of the necessary agronomic techniques for obtaining high yields and marketing of agricultural products. This problem has many causes, but the main reasons are, of course, the production of low-quality agricultural products, the inability of farmers to properly plan their own farming, as well as a lack of knowledge in the technology of cropping. According to the training plans of the seven WUA OSUs, training of WUA staff and farmers on the basics of agronomy is envisaged. For this purpose, the staff of the NWRMP Phase-1 Project has conducted a training course for the WUA OSUs specialists on the basics of agronomy and the rules of technology for growing agricultural crops.
The achievement of the project objectives is achieved through training activities.
Training in agronomy for specialists of regional WUA support units is a very necessary activity at present moment, as in past years the agronomy issues were not allocated time. Taking into account the wish of farmers and WUA staff in the training plan for 2017, the training course on agronomy was included.
Trainings on agronomy on the topic: “The basics of agricultural engineering and cropping” under the NWRMP Phase-1 Project on February 2-3, 2017 in Osh city for specialists of WUA regional and rayon support units in the southern region and on February 16-17, 2017 in Bishkek for specialists of WUA regional and rayon support units in the northern region were conducted. The trainings were attended by 29 and 48 people respectively.
Trainings have covered the following topics:
- Basics of agronomy;
- . Rules of agriculture and plants life factors;
- Soil fertility and crop rotation;
- Soils of Kyrgyzstan. Tillage system;
- Seeds. methods and norms of sowing;
- Types and properties of fertilizers. Microelements. Preparation of compost;
- Biological specifics of crops;
- Plant protection. Diseases and pests of crops. Control measures against pests and diseases. Weeds;
- Irrigation agronomy.
The training participants have received knowledge on the rules of agriculture and the factors of plant life. Information on soils and its fertility and tillage systems was presented. The section of agronomy on seeds, methods and standards of seeding was introduced with participants in the form of presentations and lectures. One of the factors for obtaining high yields is the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers in a timely and optimal manner, which the training participants have mastered in the training process.
In addition, the participants were introduced with the methods of preparing compost at home, using raw materials from their farms.
Biological specifics of crops play an important role in the selection of sorts. Last year showed what damage can be caused by diseases and pests of crops. Participants have mastered measures to control diseases and pests. At present, farmers and villagers become to understand that it is impossible to obtain good and desired harvests from cultivated crops without agronomic measures. The training has reached its goal. Participants of the training have received a CD that recorded all necessary handouts, presentations on agronomy.
As a result of the training course, the participants of the training have received knowledge on the following issues:
- Composition, structure and properties of main types of soils;
- Chemical and biochemical composition of agricultural crops, chemical composition and properties of fertilizers, agrochemical properties of main types of soils;
- Morphologic and biologic specifics of weeds, main tillage practices and crop rotations;
- Concept of sort, its meaning in agricultural production;
- Sort control, basics of seeds storage;
The received skills and knowledge will be used by the specialists (trainers) of regional WUA support units when they will conduct training of farmers and WUA staff on the local level.
According to results of training:
- Training participants have received knowledge on agricultural plants, soils, pests and means of protection against them, mineral and organic fertilizers techniques and their use
- Trainees were introduced with basic technologies in soil science, agricultural chemistry, plant protection, agriculture;
- Trainees were introduced with crop farming cultivation technologies, forage production, selection, seed production, fruit production, vegetable production and land improvement.
The photos from training are below: